But have you heard that S. Hawking recently suggested the whole concept of blakc holes should be rethought?
“[Stephen Hawking] goes away with the notion of an event horizon, the invisible boundary thought to shroud every black hole, beyond which nothing, not even light, can escape. In its stead, Hawking’s radical proposal is a much more benign “apparent horizon”, which only temporarily holds matter and energy prisoner before eventually releasing them, albeit in a more garbled form. […]
If Hawking is correct, there could even be no singularity at the core of the black hole. Instead, matter would be only temporarily held behind the apparent horizon, which would gradually move inward owing to the pull of the black hole, but would never quite crunch down to the centre. Information about this matter would not destroyed, but would be highly scrambled so that, as it is released through Hawking radiation, it would be in a vastly different form, making it almost impossible to work out what the swallowed objects once were.”
The paper still has to be peer-reviewed, but when the author is Stephen Hawking, one of the creators of modern black-hole theory, it’s worth taking notice…
“The bright gamma-ray burst GRB 130427A was spotted on April 27, 2013 by scientists operating the Large Area Telescope (LAT) as well as the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. […] Because the burst is so rare in its intensity (that we have detected so far) researchers have claimed that this is a unique time to measure photon activity at this energy level.[…] The extensive information collected from this GRB has been described as the “benchmark” which will influence all future GRB researchers.”
From the HAP website: Time to celebrate for the scientists of the IceCube - South Pole Neutrino Observatory! With a nice explanation, if you ever wondered, of why the two highest-energy neutrino events of IceCube are called Bert and Ernie :)
One of the most significant scientific discoveries of the early 21st century is surely the Higgs boson, but the boson and the Higgs Field that allows for that magic particle are extremely difficult to grasp. Don Lincoln outlines an analogy (originally conceived by David Miller) that all of us can appreciate, starring a large dinner party, a raucous group of physicists, and Peter Higgs himself.
Lesson by Don Lincoln, animation by Powerhouse Animation Studios Inc
Is string theory right? Is it just fantasy? Caught in the landscape, Out of touch with reality Compactified On S5 or T*S3
Space is a pure void Why should it be stringy? Because it’s quantum not classical Nonrenormalizable Any way you quantize You’ll encounter infinity You see
Quanta Must interact Via paths we understand Using Feynman diagrams Often, they will just rebound But now and then they go another way A quantum Loooooop Infinities will make you cry Unless you can renormalize your model Of baryons, fermions And all other states of matter
Curved space: The graviton Can be thought of as a field But these infinities are real In a many-body Loop diagram Our results diverge no matter what we do… A Quantum Soup (any way you quantize) Kiss your fields goodbye Guess Einstein’s theory wasn’t complete at all!
I see extended 1-D objects with no mass What’s their use? What’s their use? Can they give us quark plasma? What to minimize? What functional describes this String? Nambu-Goto! (Nambu-Goto) Nambu-Goto! (Nambu-Goto) How to quantize I don’t know Polyakov! I’m just a worldsheet, please minimize me He’s just a worldsheet from a string theory Reperametrized by a Weyl symmetry!
Fermi, Bose, open, closed, orientable? Vibrations Modes! They become particles (particles!) Vibrations They become particles (particles!) Vibrations They become particles (particles!) Become particles (particles!) Become particles (many many many many particle…) Modes modes modes modes modes modes modes! Oh mamma mia mamma mia, Such a sea of particles! A tachyon, with a dilaton and gravity-vity-VITY
Now we need ten dimensions and I’ll tell you why (anomaly cancellation!) So to get down to 4D we compactify! Oh, Kahler! (Kahler manifold) Manifolds must be Kahler! (Complex Reimannian symplectic form) If we wanna preserve Any of our super-symmetry
(Superstrings of type I, IIa and IIb) (Heterotic O and Heterotic E) (All are one through S and T duality) (Thank you Ed Witten for that superstring revolution and your new M-theory!)
(Maldecena!) (Super-Yang-Mills!) (Type IIB String!) Dual! Dual! (In the AdS/CFT) (Holography!)
Molecules and atoms Light and energy Time and space and matter All from one united Theory
Any way you quantize…
Lyrics and arrangement by Tim Blais and A Capella Science Original music by Queen